Современные представления о регуляции тромбоцитарного гемостаза

Authors: A.N. Sveshnikova1–3, A.A. Yakusheva1–3, A.A. Ryabykh1, O.E. Ushakova1,2, A.A. Abaeva1,2, S.I. Obydennyy1, D.Yu. Nechipurenko1–3, M.A. Panteleev1–3

Company: 1 Dmitry Rogachev National Research Center for Paediatric Hematology, Immunology and Oncology, of Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, ulitsa Samory Mashela, 1, Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation; 2Center for Theoretical Problems of Physico-Chemical Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Sciences, ulitsa Kosygina, 4, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation; 3M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, mikrorayon Leninskie Gory, 1, stroenie 2, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation

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Heading: Reviews

UDC: 616-005.1-08:616.155.2
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24022/1997-3187-2018-12-3-260-274

For citation: Sveshnikova A.N., Yakusheva A.A., Ryabykh A.A., Ushakova O.E., Abaeva A.A., Obydennyy S.I., Nechipurenko D.Yu., Panteleev M.A. Modern views on the regulation of platelet-dependent hemostasis. Creative Cardiology. 2018; 12 (3): 260–74 (in Russ.). DOI: 10.24022/1997-3187-2018-12-3-260-274

Received / Accepted:  19.07.2018/09.08.2018

Key Words: hemostasis thrombosis platelets cell signal transduction integral assays of hemostasis

Abstract

Platelets are non-nuclear cellular fragments of blood, whose main task is to stop bleeding by forming aggregates. Despite the relatively simple task, their organization is very complex. They have an almost complete set of organelles and other components, including endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, glycogen, actin and tubulin cytoskeleton and myosin contractile mechanisms. When activated, platelets secrete a variety of granules and interact with plasma proteins and blood cells and other tissues; their activation is controlled by more than one hundred receptors and complex signal cascades. In recent years, new key mechanisms for the functioning of platelets have been identified, which led to a significant revision of the concept of the regulation of the hemostatic response, pathological thrombosis and other functions of platelets. The most significant new views include: heterogeneity of thrombi and hemostatic aggregates, the role of platelets in maintaining vascular integrity, the formation of procoagulant platelets upon activation due to a new type of cell death, the new role of platelets in immunity and tissue development, activation of platelet contact during arterial thrombosis and others. These advances serve as a basis for the development of new methods of diagnosis and therapy.

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About Authors

Chief Editor

Leo A. Bockeria, MD, PhD, DSc, Professor, Academician of Russian Academy of Sciences, Director of Bakoulev National Medical Research Center for Cardiovascular Surgery