“Dos grandes frescos donde se mostrata la historia de la cardiologia”: view at the history of cardiology of doctor Ignacio Chávez and artist Diego Rivera. Part 2. From the first blood pressure measuring to modern cardiology

Authors: S.P. Glyantsev1, Yu.D. Pirushkina2

Company: 1 Bakoulev National Medical Research Center for Cardiovascular Surgery, Moscow, 121552, Russian Federation
2 Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation

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Type:  Original articles

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24022/1997-3187-2020-14-2-105-124

For citation: Glyantsev S.P., Pirushkina Yu.D. “Dos grandes frescos donde se mostrata la historia de la cardiologia”: view at the history of cardiology of doctor Ignacio Chávez and artist Diego Rivera. Part 2. From the first blood pres- sure measuring to modern cardiology. Creative Cardiology. 2020; 14 (2): 105–24 (in Russ.). DOI: 10.24022/1997- 3187-2020-14-2-105-124

Received / Accepted:  20.05.2020 / 25.05.2020

Keywords: history of cardiology Mexico National Institute of Cardiology Ignacio Chávez monumental painting Diego Rivera spiral development of society medicine and cardiology.

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In 1945, at the National Institute of Cardiology of Mexico in Mexico City, doctor I. Chávez and artist D. Rivera created a fresco that reflects the history of cardiology in portraits and discoveries of its distinguished representatives. The fresco is made in the style of monumental painting (muralism) and is a highly artistic multi-figure wall painting. In part 2 of the article, the content analysis of the right (clinical and diagnostic) half of the mural is carried out. It shows physicians and scientists who have developed instrumental methods for studying of blood circulation and diagnostics of heart diseases (S. Hales, C. Ludwig, E.-J. Marey, S. von Basch and M. Pachon); two pioneers of the study of heart rhythm (J. Mackenzie and K. Wenckebach); doctors who discovered new opportunities for drug therapy of heart diseases (W. Withering, J. Fraenkel, J.-B. de Sénac, W. Heberden) and their physical diagnostics (W. Stokes and L. Traube); L. Galvani, who discovered “animal” electricity, pioneers of radiation methods for diagnostics of heart and vascular diseases (W. Röntgen, F. Moritz, A. Castellanos) and electrocardiography (A.D. Waller, W. Einthoven, T. Lewis and F. N. Wilson); prominent representatives of the clinical pathology of heart defects (S. von Rokitansky, M. Abbott) and clinical cardiology (P. Potain, H. Huchard, L. Vaquez, Ch. Laubry, J. B. Herrick, and P. D. White), which contributed to the institutionalization of cardiology as a social phenomenon. An analysis of the mural and available sources revealed the identities of all 29 scientists depicted on it and briefly reflected their contributions to the development of cardiology. The lower part of the mural is dedicated to the treatment of heart diseases in the peoples of Africa and South America. The authors of the article suggested that the placement of portraits of personalities along spiral lines reflects the social continuity of medical knowledge. Russian and Soviet physicians who, according to the authors, could be placed in the Pantheon of pioneers of world cardiology are also listed (G.I. Sokolsky, S.P. Botkin, G.A. Zakharyin, I.F. Tsion, N.S. Korotkov, N.N. Anichkov, V.P. Obraztsov, N.D. Strazhesco, A.F. Samoilov, G.F. Lang). Given the dual authorship of the mural, we believe that it should be called the Chávez-Rivera’s fresco.


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About Authors

Sergey P. Glyantsev, Dr. Med. Sc., Professor, Head of Department, orcid.org/0000-0003-2754-836X
Yuliya D. Pirushkina, Student, orcid.org/0000-0002-8062-5187

Chief Editor

Leo A. Bockeria, MD, PhD, DSc, Professor, Academician of Russian Academy of Sciences, Director of Bakoulev National Medical Research Center for Cardiovascular Surgery